Most Clark County livestock producers depend on hay for a significant part of the winter feed for their animals.
The quantity and quality of hay produced each year is quite variable. Ideal weather for growing hay (plenty of moisture) is not good for hay harvest and curing, and managing hay harvest around the Kentucky weather is always challenging. Tom Keene, hay specialist at the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, has offered some suggestions for managing hay supplies.
The variability of yield, quality and number of cuttings indicate the hay supply could get tight. To ensure an adequate amount, farmers should enact several measures. Store hay inside a barn, where it will remain dry. Remember to store hay in barns that have access in all types of weather. If that is not feasible, cover with a tarp to protect it from the elements. Buy hay by the ton, if at all possible, and require certified stamped weight.
Farmers should get their hay tested by the Kentucky Department of Agriculture to determine if they need to buy additional hay. Testing is the first step to knowing how much will be necessary to meet the nutritional needs of the animals they feed, from horses to cattle to goats.
Hay is tested primarily for crude protein, acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), total digestible nutrients (TDV) and relative feed value (RFV). For more information, refer to the University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service publication “Interpreting Forage Quality Reports” at www.uky.edu/Ag/AnimalSciences/pubs/id101.pdf.Hay is typically fed from mid-December until mid-March, approximately 110 days, though that will vary due to weather, pasture conditions, and the needs of different animals.
To reduce waste, get hay, whether round or square bales, off the ground, either by using pallets, feeders, or hay carts. This simple step can reduce wasted hay by almost half. If that is impossible, feed in long rows so hay is consumed immediately, rather than leaving a round bale out for animals to pick at. They will consume the center of the round bale, which has remained dry and protected, first, and that judicious eating will greatly increase waste.
To determine hay needs:
— Calculate the number of days animals will need feed.
— Weigh a random sample of bales so you know the average weight of your bales, using scales at feed mills or truck stops.
— With the results of the hay test, calculate how many pounds each animal will need daily.
— Arrive at a grand total of how much hay the herd will require over the winter.
Forward planning and good management practices will help ensure an adequate hay supply during the winter. Because hay is a commodity whose price is driven by supply and demand, it is unlikely that prices will be lower in the coming months, so if you do not have enough, you should buy it now, before more buyers move into the market. A tight supply, plus possible hay purchases from bordering states, may possibly elevate what are already high prices. Straw is also likely to be expensive.
For more information, review University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service publication “Quality Hay Production” at www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/agr/agr62/agr62.pdf, or contact the Clark County Cooperative Extension Service at 744-4682.